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Use Your Brain Power!26
1. Look at the elements of the third period. Classify them into metals and nonmetals.
→ The elements in the third period are:
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
They can be classified into metals and non-metals as follows: 2 Marks
Metals Non-metals
Na, Mg, Al P, S, Cl, Ar
2. On which side of the period are the metals? Left or right?
→ Metals are on the left side of the period.
1 Mark
3. On which side of the period did you find the nonmetals?
→ Non-metals are found on the right side of the period.
1 Mark

 It is seen that the metallic elements like sodium, magnesium are towards the left. The nonmetallic elements such as sulphur, chlorine are towards the right. The metalloid element silicon lies in between these two types. A similar pattern is also observed in the other periods.
 It is seen that the zig- zag line separates the metals from nonmetals in the periodic table. Elements appear to have arranged in such a way that metals are on left side of this line, nonmetals on the right side and metalloids are along the border of this line. How did this happen?
 Let us compare the characteristic chemical properties of metals and nonmetals. It is seen from the chemical formulae of simple ionic compounds that the cation in them is formed from a metal while the anion from a nonmetal. From this it is understood that metal atoms have a tendency to form a cation by losing its valence electron, this property is called electropositivity of an element. On the other hand an atom of a nonmetal has a tendency to form an anion by accepting electrons from outside into its valence shell. We have already seen that ions have a stable electronic configuration of a noble gas. How is the ability to lose or accept electrons in the valence shell determined? All the electrons in any atom are held by the attractive force exerted on them by the positively charged nucleus. Electrons in the inner shells lie in between the valence shell and the nucleus. Because of their presence the effective nuclear charge exerting an attractive force on the valence electrons is somewhat less than the actual nuclear charge. Thus, the number of valence electrons in metals is small (1 to 3). Also the effective nuclear charge exerting attractive force on the valence electrons is small. As a combined effect of these two factors metals have a tendency to lose the valence electrons to form cations having a stable noble gas configuration. This tendency of an element called electropositivity is the metallic character of that element.

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02 May 2020 at 10:03